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            【芬蘭語語法】§92 GENERAL

            時間:2017-04-10來源:互聯網 進入芬蘭語論壇
            核心提示:There are two ways of forming new words from existing words and stems:derivation and compounding. In derivation, new wor
            (單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
             There are two ways of forming new words from existing words and stems:
            derivation and compounding. In derivation, new words (word stems) are
            made by adding derivative endings or suffixes to the root or to another stem.
            To the adjective kaunis : kaunii- ‘beautiful’, for instance, we can add the
            ending -ta to form the derived verb stem kaunis/ta- ‘beautify’ (first infinitive
            kaunis/ta/a). In the same way we can take the verb stem aja- ‘drive’, and add
            the ending -o to form the derived noun aj/o ‘drive, chase, hunt’, or the ending
            -ele- to form the verb stem aj/ele- ‘drive around’ (first infinitive aj/el/la).
            Derivative suffixes occur immediately after the root but before the
            inflectional endings, i.e. before number and case endings in nominals, before
            passive, tense, mood and personal endings in finite verb forms, and before the
            infinitive and participle endings in non-finite verb forms. (See the diagrams
            in Chapter 3.)
            Derived nominals and verbs inflect just like non-derived ones. Derived
            words are subject to the same sound alternations as other words, in particular
            consonant gradation (§15) and the vowel changes (§16).
            Adding derivative suffixes may cause sound alternations in the root: e.g.
            kaunii- : kaune/us and aja- : aj/ele-. In what follows these alternations will
            be evident from the examples, and separate rules will not be given. There
            may also be alternations in the derivative suffixes themselves when further
            suffixes are added.
            It is characteristic of Finnish that a given word form may contain many
            derivative suffixes, one after the other. Below are some examples. The (non-
            derived) root is given on the left, the derived word in the middle, and the
            ‘basic’ or full forms of the derivative suffixes on the right.
            232 Finnish: An Essential Grammar
            Stem Derived word Derivative suffixes
            (basic forms)
            aja- aj/ele/minen driving about ele-minen
            asee- asee/llis/ta- arm (verb) llinen-ta
            asee- asee/llis/ta/minen arming (noun) llinen-ta-minen
            aja- aj/ele/hti- drift ele-hti
            aja- aj/ele/hti/va drifting (adj.) ele-hti-va
            lika- lika/is/uus dirtiness inen-uus
            koti- kodi/ttom/uus homelessness ton(ttoma)-uus
            kuole- kuole/ma/ttom/uus immortality ma-ton(ttoma)-uus
            etsi- etsi/skel/y search (noun) skele-y
            haukkaa- hauka/hd/us yelp (noun) hta-us
            haukkaa- hauka/ht/el/u yelping (noun) hta-ele-u
            asu- asu/nno/ttom/uus without a house nto-ton(ttoma)-uus
            tuo- tuo/tta/ma/ttom/uus unproductiveness tta-ma-ton(ttoma)-uus
            Not all derivative suffixes are equally productive. Some are extremely
            productive, which means they can be added to practically all roots that belong
            to a given type. Examples are the suffixes -ja ~ -jä ‘agent’, -minen ‘verbal
            noun’ and -ma/ton ~ -mä/tön ‘not’, cf. aja/ja ‘driver’, aja/minen ‘driving’,
            aja/ma/ton ‘undriven’; tuli/ja ‘comer’, tule/minen ‘coming’, tule/ma/ton
            ‘not coming, not come’; meni/jä ‘goer’, mene/minen ‘going’, mene/mä/tön
            ‘not going, not gone’, etc.
            Other suffixes occur primarily or exclusively with certain roots, and are
            thus more or less unproductive.
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