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            【芬蘭語語法】§94 COMPOUNDING

            時間:2017-04-10來源:互聯網 進入芬蘭語論壇
            核心提示:The most common type of compound word is made up of two non-derivednouns. In the following examples, the = symbol indica
            (單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)
             The most common type of compound word is made up of two non-derived
            nouns. In the following examples, the = symbol indicates internal word
            boundaries. Typical compounds are written without spaces.
            kirja=kauppa bookshop
            vesi=pullo water-bottle
            pallo=peli ball game
            kirje=kuori envelope (‘letter=cover’)
            kivi=katu paved street (‘stone=street’)
            kivi=kausi stone age
            kirves=varsi axe handle
            keittiö=kone kitchen machine, appliance
            242 Finnish: An Essential Grammar
            The first noun of these compounds is often in the genitive, e.g.:
            meren=ranta seashore (cf. meri ‘sea’)
            kirjan=kansi book cover (cf. kirja ‘book’)
            auton=ikkuna car window (cf. auto ‘car’)
            avaimen=reikä keyhole (cf. avain ‘key’)
            The components of a compound may also be derived words themselves:
            kaiv/in=kone excavator, digging machine
            lävist/ys=kone punching-machine
            pes/u=kone washing-machine
            kone=apu/lainen machine operator
            te/o/llis/uus=tuo/ta/nto industrial (‘industry’) production
            Also fairly common are compounds with more than two elements, such as:
            maa=talo/us=tuo/ta/nto agricultural production
            el/o=kuva=te/o/llis/uus film industry
            huone=kalu=tehdas furniture factory
            koti=tarve=myynti household sale
            kauppa=tase=vaja/us deficit in the balance of trade
            täyde/nn/ys=koulu/t/us=kys/el/y further training inquiry
            el/in=keino=tulo=vero=laki law concerning the taxation of
            earned income
            Structurally rather complex compounds are formed when one of the elements
            is a deverbal noun and/or a word inflecting in a local case:
            työn=saa/nti=mahdollis/uus chance of finding work
            tode/llis/uuden=hahmo/tta/mis=kyky ability to give shape to reality
            oman=voiton=pyy/nti self-interest
            jäsen=hanki/nta=kampanja campaign to recruit members
            nuoteista=laulu=taito ability to sing at sight
            hallituksessa=ol/o=aika period (‘being’) in the government
            pysä/hty/mis=merkin=ant/o=nappi button giving the stop signal
            Structures of this type are quite common and productive, particularly in the
            written language; compare also this example:
            prahassa=käy/mä/ttöm/yys=kompleksi
            complex about not having been to Prague
            Such complex compounds often correspond to complete sentences. There are
            also many compound adjectives, especially with a derived adjective as the
            second element:
            asian=muka/inen appropriate
            saman=koko/inen of the same size
            Word formation 243
            ala=ikä/inen under-age
            vapaa=miel/inen liberal-minded
            lyhyt=sana/inen taciturn, curt, brief
            moni=mutka/inen complicated
            suomen=kiel/inen Finnish-speaking
            kansan=taju/inen popular, easily comprehensible
            kansain=väli/nen international
            pitkä=aika/inen long, long-term
            The first element of a two-part compound may occasionally differ from the
            basic form. This is particularly the case with nominals ending in -nen
            (§20.1); in compounds these have the same stem as in the partitive singular,
            for example:
            kokonais=valta/inen holistic (cf. kokonainen ‘whole’)
            nais=suku=puoli female sex (cf. nainen ‘woman’)
            yksityis=kohta/inen detailed (cf. yksityinen ‘individual’)
            yleis=kieli standard language (cf. yleinen ‘general’)
            ihmis=kunta mankind (cf. ihminen ‘man’)
            hevos=paimen horse herder (cf. hevonen ‘horse’)
            Other special cases include:
            suur=piirteinen large-scale; broad-minded (cf. suuri
            ‘great’)
            kolmi=vuot/ias three-year-old (cf. kolme ‘three’)
            neli=vuot/ias four-year-old (cf. neljä ‘four’)
            There are not many compound verbs in Finnish. Note however:
            alle=kirjoittaa sign
            kokoon=panna put together
            laimin=lyödä neglect
            läpi=käydä go through
            yllä=pitää maintain, keep up
            jälleen=vakunttaa reinsure
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